Received date: March 14, 2016; Accepted date: April 19, 2016; Published date: April 22, 2016
Citation: Hamel T, Zaafour M, Boumendjel M (2018) Ethnomedical Knowledge and Traditional Uses of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of the Wetlands Complex of the Guerbès-Sanhadja Plain (Wilaya of Skikda in Northeastern Algeria). Herb Med Vol.4 No.1:03.. doi:10.21767/2472-0151.100035
Copyright: © 2018 Hamel T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In Algeria, little research has focused on the use of spontaneous plant species in traditional medicine. Indeed, the majority of his work was based on surveys with users, neglecting the floristic aspect of the field. In this context, we carried out a floristic and ethnobotanical study with the residents of Guerbès-Sanhadja.
In order to know the medicinal plants traditionally used by the population of the villages and hamlets of the wet complex of Guerbès-Sanhadja, a floristic and ethnobotanical study was carried out in this region. 150 people were interviewed consecutively between January and May 2015. Ethnobotanical data were collected and their habits in traditional medicine were detailed.
The study of the medicinal flora made it possible to inventory 52 genera and 81 species belonging to 52 botanical families. Similarly, a series of ethnobotanical surveys carried out, using a questionnaire, made it possible to collect a certain amount of information. The results of this study showed that foliage is the most used part of the Aboriginal population. The majority of remedies are prepared as an infusion. Of all the diseases treated, digestive disorders represent the most cited diseases.
The results obtained constitute a very valuable source of information for the region studied concerning the Algerian medicinal flora. This will undoubtedly constitute a database for further research in phytochemistry and pharmacology whose purpose is to discover new natural substances of plant origin.
Ethnomedicine; Guerbes-sanhadja; Medicinal flora; Ethnobotany
Medicinal plants are a significant treasure for human health, especially in developing countries. The availability of these plants provides primary treatment for the sick . Notwithstanding the development of synthetic drugs and the progress of pharmacology, the plant medicine, in its various forms, continues to occupy a prominent place. There are thus cardiotonic (Digitalis, commonly called foxgloves), purgatif (alder buckthorn, or glossy buckthorn,), modifiers of the autonomic nervous system (Belladonna or deadly nightshade), antidiarrheals (Rosaceae) and others .
Among the scientific disciplines that are interested in traditional phytotherapy, ethnobotany is considered a science that allows the translation of popular know-how into scientific knowledge . The passage of information by the ancestors is completed by the development of modern medicine , and he is now only held by a few people , hence the need to conduct ethnobotanical research on medicinal plants in different localities of Algeria in order to safeguard the knowledge acquired by the indigenous population .
The Algerian flora constitutes a true phytogenetic reservoir, with about 4,000 species of vascular plants , which allows it to occupy a privileged place among the Mediterranean countries which have a long medical tradition and a traditional know-how based on medicinal plants . The majority of work on the aspect of the use of spontaneous species in traditional medicine is based on surveys with users while neglecting the floristic aspect of the field. The aim of this study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of the riparian population, to identify and characterize vascular plants by highlighting their therapeutic virtues.
Presentation of the study area
The eco-complex of the Guerbès-Sanhadja (36°46'-37°1' N, 7°8'-7°25' E) wetlands is limited to the northeast by the Edough Massif, in the north-west by the Filfila massif, to the south-west by the Boumaïza massif and it extends to the South-East to near Lake Fetzara (Figure 1). The total area of the wetland complex is 42,100 ha and the area of the wetland proper is around 20,000 ha . This eco-complex is located in a sub-humid floor bordering the Chetaïbi mountains to the east and the Skikda coastal hills to the west .
An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted in the Guerbès-Sanhadja region over a period of five months (January-May 2015) with 150 people of different age groups from whom we obtained samples of harvested plants. The investigation was based on a pre-established questionnaire containing information on the therapeutic interest, the part used and the method of preparation.
The identification of the collected samples was made from the flora of Quézel et al.  and the flora of North Africa of Maire . The new nomenclature has been updated for inventoried species taking into account recent work compiled in the synonymic and bibliographic index of North African flora . The species were recorded by their biological types recomposed according to Raunkiaer , Pignatti , Blanca et al.  and according to our own observations. Endemic species are recorded according to Dobignard et al. .
The species are also ranked according to their degree of rarity (Rare, or uncommon: R, Very Rare: VR). Let's add for endemic species (Common: C, Fairly Common: FC, Quite Rare: QR) as indicated by the flora of Quézel and Santa .
Of the 52 botanical families identified in the investigation, the most commonly used are Lamiaceae with 8 species or 9.87%, Asteraceae with 7 species (8.64%), followed by Fabaceae (4 species, 4.93%), Poaceae and finally Apiaceae (3 species, 2.7% each) (Table 1).
|Taxa||Biological Types||Therapeutic Interests||Modes of Preparation||Used Parts|
|Adiantum capillus-veneris L.||Hemicryptophyte||Respiratory tract treatment||Powder||Air part|
|Allium triquetrum L.||Geophyte||Vermifuge and hypotensive||Decoction||Bulbs|
|Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.||Phanerophyte||Healing and anti-inflammatory||Decoction||Barks and leaves|
|Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam.||Therophyte||Treatment of constipation||Infusion||Umbels|
|Anagallis crassifolia Thore||Hemicryptophyte||Diuretic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Apium crassipes (Koch) Rchb.||Hydrophyte||Antirheumatic||Infusion||Seeds|
|Asparagus officinalis L.||Geophyte||Treatment female sterility||Decoction||Rhizomes|
|Asphodelus ramosus L.||Geophyte||Vulnerable and antiseptic||Oil||Tubers|
|Bellis prostrata Pomel||Therophyte||Treatment of arteriosclerosis||Infusion||Leaves|
|Borago officinalis L.||Therophyte||Emollient||Infusion||Leaves|
|Callitriche obtusangula Le Gall.||Hydrophyte||Diuretic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br.||Chamaephyte||Antipyretic||infusion||Leaves|
|Centaurea napifolia L.||Hemicryptophyte||Digestive||Infusion||Flowers|
|Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch ex Janch.||Therophyte||Digestive||Infusion||Leaves|
|Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.||Therophyte||Treatment of gastric pain||Infusion||Leaves|
|Ceratonia siliqua L.||Phanerophyte||Diuretic and slightly purifying||Decoction||Fruits|
|Ceratophyllum submersum L.||Hydrophyte||Treatment of diarrhea and gastric pain||Decoction||Leaves|
|Cistus monspeliensis L.||Phanerophyte||Diabetes treatment and digestive assignments||Poultice||Leaves|
|Cotula coronopifolia L.||Hydrophyte||Digestive||Infusion||Air part|
|Cynara cardunculus L.||Hemicryptophyte||Protects the liver by eliminating toxins||Infusion||Capitulums and leaves|
|Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.||Geophyte||Urinary and biliary infections, treatment of arthritis and rheumatism||Decoction||Rhizomes and stems|
|Cyperus fuscus L.||Hemicryptophyte||Emmenagogue||Infusion||Air part|
|Cytisus villosus Pourret||Phanerophyte||Healing||Decoction||Leaves|
|Daphne gnidium L.||Phanerophyte||Treatment of syphilis, venereal diseases and dermatological||Powder||Barks|
|Daucus carota subsp. maritimus (Lam.) Batt.||Hemicryptophyte||Depurative||Infusion||Roots and seeds|
|Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin||Therophyte||Antirheumatic||Poultice||Leaves|
|Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter||Phanerophyte||Relieves rheumatic and healing pains||Decoction and powder||Roots and leaves|
|Drimia numidica (Jord. & Fourr.) J.C.Manning & Goldblatt||Geophyte||Relieves rheumatic pains||Decoction||Bulbs|
|Dorycnium rectum (L.) Ser.||Therophyte||Treatment of back and gastrointestinal pain; treatment of urogenital pain||Infusion and fumigation||Leaves|
|Erica scoparia L.||Phanerophyte||Anti-inflammatory||Infusion||Leaves|
|Eucalyptus globulus Labill.||Phanerophyte||Treatment of bronchitis and influenza states||Infusion||Leaves|
|Euphorbia peplus L.||Therophyte||Treatment of nephritis||Infusion||Leaves|
|Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.||Phanerophyte||Astringent||Infusion||Barks|
|Fuirena pubescens (Poir.) Kunth.||Chamaephyte||Used during pregnancy so that the child grows
normally, is healthy and the genitals are protected
|Genista ulicina Spach.||Phanerophyte||Diuretic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Hedera algeriensis Hibberd||Phanerophyte||Wound healing and anti-cellulite effect||Decoction||Leaves|
|Hypericum afrum Lam.||Phanerophyte||Antidepressant and anti-inflammatory||Maceration||Flowerheads|
|Hypochoeris radicata L.||Therophyte||Detoxifying||Decoction||Leaves|
|Illecebrum verticillatum L.||Therophyte||Astringent||Infusion||Leaves|
|Juniperus oxycedrus L.||Phanerophyte||Hair care and neurological||Infusion||Leaves|
|Laurus nobilis L.||Phanerophyte||Heals disorders of the upper digestive tract and arthritis pain||Infusion||Leaves|
|Lavandula stoechas L.||Phanerophyte||Relieves gastralgia and calms cough||Decoction||Leaves|
|Linaria pinifolia (Poir.) Thell.||Hemicryptophyte||Digestive and heals the liver||Decoction||Leaves|
|Lonicera implexa Aiton||Phanerophyte||Astringent and diuretic||Infusion and powder||Leaves and barks|
|Lythrum salicaria L.||Phanerophyte||Astringent||Infusion||Flowerheads|
|Mentha aquatica L.||Chamaephyte||Diuretic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Mentha pulegium L.||Chamaephyte||Treatment of painful periods, abdominal pain and relieves rheumatic pain||Infusion||Leaves and blooming branches|
|Mentha suaveolens Ehrh.||Chamaephyte||Treatment of uro-genital infections||Decoction||Leaves|
|Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC.||Hydrophyte||Treatment of inflammations of recent wounds||Infusion||Leaves|
|Myrtus communis L.||Phanerophyte||Treatment of gastric pain||Infusion||Leaves|
|Nymphaea alba L.||Hydrophyte||Diuretic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea
var. europaea (autonyme)
|Phanerophyte||Used in case of high blood pressure and diabetes||Infusion||Leaves|
|Osmunda regalis L.||Hemicryptophyte||Astringent||Decoction||Rhizomes|
|Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.||Phanerophyte||Digestive disorders and hair care||Raw||Fruits|
|Oxalis pes-caprae L.||Geophyte||Treatment of jaundice and urinary stones||Decoction||Stems|
|Panicum repens L.||Hemicryptophyte||Treatment of biliary diseases, wounds, ulcers and ophthalmic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Pinus pinaster Aiton||Phanerophyte||Healing||Powder||Fruits|
|Pistacia lentiscus L.||Phanerophyte||Healing, treatment of asthma and digestive||Decoction||Roots|
|Polygonum cambricum L. subsp. cambricum||Hemicryptophyte||Facilitates the drainage of abscesses in cases of furunculosis||Powder||Leaves and roots|
|Populus alba L.||Phanerophyte||Heals sciatica and stranguria||Powder, infusion||Barks and leaves|
|Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn||Geophyte||Heals spleen conditions and wounds||Infusion||Leaves|
|Quercus suber L.||Phanerophyte||Antidiarrheal||Decoction, powder||Barks and fruits|
|Ranunculus flammula L.||Therophyte||Remedy for ulcers||Infusion||Leaves|
|Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill.||Therophyte||Digestive||Infusion||Leaves|
|Ricinus communis L.||Phanerophyte||Purging effect very famous||Infusion||Seeds|
|Rosa sempervirens L.||Phanerophyte||Slightly diuretic||Powder||Fruits|
|Rubus ulmifolius Schott||Phanerophyte||Antidiarrheal||Infusion||Leaves|
|Rumex aristidis Coss.||Hemicryptophyte||Heals skin problems like acne||Infusion||Seeds|
|Salix alba L.||Phanerophyte||Antirheumatic||Decoction||Leaves|
|Salvia verbenaca L.||Hemicryptophyte||Treatment of heart disease||Decoction||Roots|
|Sambucus nigra L.||Phanerophyte||Anti-inflammatory and diuretic||Infusion and decoction||Flowerheads|
|Scolymus hispanicus L.||Hemicryptophyte||Treatment of neurological conditions||Infusion||Leaves|
|Scrophularia tenuipes Coss. & Durieu||Therophyte||Anti-inflammatory and haemostatic||Infusion||Leaves|
|Smilax aspera L.||Treatment of eczema||Decoction||Leaves|
|Stachys arvensis (L.) L.||Therophyte||Antidepressant and digestive||Decoction||Capitulums|
|Stachys marrubifolia Viv.||Hemicryptophyte||Relieves headaches and digestive||Infusion||Leaves|
|Tamarix gallica L.||Phanerophyte||Edema of the spleen||Decoction||Leaves|
|Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reut.||Chamaephyte||Treatment of intestinal bloat, genital and intestinal pains||Infusion||Leaves|
|Trifolium repens L.||Therophyte||Antidiarrheal||Infusion||Leaves|
|Urtica pilulifera L.||Therophyte||Astringent and diuretic||Infusion or decoction||Leaves|
|Verbena officinalis L.||Hemicryptophyte||Treatment of diarrhea and gastric pain||Decoction||Leaves|
Table 1: List of registered medicinal plants, therapeutic properties and methods of preparation.
This study has enabled us to identify 81 remarkable "heritage" species, that is to say rare and/or endemic divided into 78 genera (Table 1). The diversity of order 1 is increased, because in addition to the large number of species, the number of families is also .
In the family Asteraceae, the most sought after and used parts are basal rosette leaves. Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.) shows its effectiveness in the treatment of biliary diseases although the plant is consumed alone as a vegetable.
Among the Fabaceae, the most popular species is undoubtedly the Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.). The pods are mixed with oatmeal, honey and beeswax to treat diarrhea.
A special place is occupied by the Prickly pear or Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) Which has become spontaneous and widespread in the study area. It is used as a fence for fields in very thorny forms, and in any case it is very popular for its ripe fruit during the summer and rich in essential fatty acids (EFA), necessary for the functioning and development of the central nervous system .
Ecological value of the plants surveyed
Medicinal plants in the study area do not always have the same heritage value. Some of them may be both endemic, or sub-endemic and rare. They are 6 taxa like the common hedgehog (Stachys marrubifolia Viv.), and the Pine-tree toadflax (Linaria pinifolia (Poiret) Thell.) Other endemic although widely distributed in Algeria, are also to be taken into consideration; such as the Numidian Squill (Drimia numidica (Jord. & Fourr.) J.C. Manning & Goldblatt) and St. John's Wort (Hypericum afrum Lam.) Other species are rare in the region, such as Elderberry, or Black elder, (Sambucus nigra L.).
The 1997 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Red List  contains 64 rare and endangered Algerian species, one of which is listed in this study. In addition, 5 taxa are on the list of uncultivated and protected plant species that include 444 protected plants throughout the Algerian territory and 29 others that deserve to be J.O.R.A .
Most rare and endemic species deserve protection without which they will disappear, especially as they are not included in the list of protected species in Algeria. A large batch of rare and unprotected taxa deserves special attention and makes it urgent to revise the list of taxa to be protected locally (Table 2). In addition, several species find here their only region in Algeria, such as the White water rose or White nenuphar (Nymphaea alba L.), noted for Numidia K3 at Annaba and El- Kala .
|Taxa ||Biogeographic types||Rarity||(UICN, 1997)||(D.E, 2012)|
|Anagallis crassifolia Thore||Atlantic||R|
|Apium crassipes (Koch) Rchb.||Mediterranean||VR|
|Bellis prostrata Pomel||End algero-tunis.||VR||P|
|Ceratophyllum submersum L.||European||VR||P|
|Fuirena pubescens (Poir.) Kunth.||Paleotempered||VR||P|
|Genista ulicina Spach.||End algero-tunis.||AR|
|Hedera algeriensis Hibberd||End algero-tunis.||FC|
|Hypericum afrum Lam.||End algero-tunis.||FC|
|Linaria pinifolia (Poir.) Thell.||End algero-tunis.||R|
|Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC.||European||R|
|Nymphaea alba L.||Eurasian||VR|
|Ranunculus flammula L.||Eurasian||R||P|
|Rumex aristidis Coss.||End algero-tunis.||R|
|Sambucus nigra L.||Paleotempered||R|
|Scrophularia tenuipes Coss. & Durieu||Subend. maghreb||R||R||P|
|Stachys marrubifolia Viv.||Subend. tyrrhenien||R|
|Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reut.||Subend. maghreb||QR|
Table 2: Observed rare and endemic species and their status according to bibliographic data (QS: Quézel and Santa , IUCN , DE: Executive Decree ). P: protected; End.: Endemic; algero-tunis.: algero-tunisian.
According to the global list of listed species, the composition of the global biological spectrum (Table 3) shows that phanerophytes, with 30 taxa (37.03%), are predominant over other life forms (6-16 corresponding taxa) at 7.4-19.75%. Therophytes and hemicryptophytes are fairly well represented with 16 species (19.75%) and 15 species (18.51%) respectively. They are followed by geophytes and chamaephytes which contain the same number of species 7, i.e., (8.64%) for each type of plant. Hydrophytes are poorly represented with only 6 species (7.4%).
|Biological Types||Number of Species||Proportions (%)|
Table 3: Global biological spectrum of medicinal species.
This dominance of perennial plants has been explained by their availability on the ground whatever the climatic hazards . Unlike the therophytes, they are characterized by a short life cycle that lasts only a few weeks or days. They constitute the result of a degradation of the vegetal cover following disturbances of the biotope.
Use of medicinal plants
By sex: Medicinal and aromatic plants are used by both women and men. Women come first with 70.60% and men after with 29.40%. In general, women are more in possession of cultural heritage and traditional herbal knowledge .
The family situation: Medicinal plants are used much more by married people (89.77%) than by single people (10.23%), because they allow them to avoid or minimize the material charges required by doctors and pharmacists. They are also more confronted with pathology affecting young children, more frequent than adults .
By age: Data analysis showed that people aged between 40 and 60 years are the most concerned by the use of medicinal plants with a frequency of 42.47%. Next are the age groups (20-40 years), age over 60 and age under 20 with the respective frequencies 28.41%, 21.18%, and 7.94% respectively.
The results show that the elderly are the main source of information on the use of plants in traditional medicine. They come in third place, unlike other studies , which found that they are the most users of medicinal plants. This difference could be explained by the random choice of the respondents but also by a change in the habits of the local population which considers that the use of drugs is a good guarantee of healing.
A weakening of the immune system of local populations, through frequent consumption of antibiotics and chemical molecules, also weighs on the choice of a stronger and more effective medication against the accumulation of multiresistant bacterial strains.
According to the level of studies: In the study area, the vast majority of users of medicinal plants are illiterate, with a percentage of 67.44%. This relatively high percentage is directly correlated with the education level of the local population. Nevertheless, people with primary education have a significant percentage of use (19.92%) of medicinal plants; while those with a high school and university level, use very little medicinal plants (respectively 7.59% and 5.05%).
This ties in with the previous observation regarding the age of the target audience of the investigation. Indeed, academics who have not followed specialized studies in botany and ethnobotany believe that only chemical medication is effective. This result is consistent with that obtained elsewhere by various authors [1,22].
Used parts of plants: The plant parts used are ranked in order of decreasing importance: leaves (61.72%), roots (13.58%), fruits (6.17%) and seeds (4.93%). The rest of the parts used represents a rate of 13.6%. The frequent use of the leaves is justified by the abundance of the chemical groups they contain. They are the site of synthesis of secondary metabolites of the plant .
Method of preparation of therapeutic recipes
Infusion is the most common method of preparation (45.79%). It is prepared mainly from fresh leaves (Spearmint) or dried (Common vervain). Comes in second position the decoction with a percentage of 23.33%. Powder picks up the third position with 12.34%. The majority of remedies are prepared primarily by infusion to treat gastric, cardiovascular and urogenital diseases . The other modes, namely fumigation, poultice, maceration and plant species, have a cumulative rate of 9.54% (Figure 2).
Traditionally, Algerian Tell species are used for the treatment of a wide range of symptoms. They are used as diuretics, astringents, in the treatment of wounds, rheumatism, fever and pain. The results obtained show that most plants are used in the treatment of digestive disorders (22.22%).
They are followed by diuretic diseases (14.81%), dermatological diseases (12.34%) and urogenital diseases (8.64%). The astringent and anti-inflammatory species are respectively equal to 7.4% and 6.14%. The diseases least treated by residents of Guerbès-Sanhadja are internal diseases, dermatoses, bronchopulmonary pathologies, heart disease, jaundice and respiratory diseases.
Generally, the diseases most treated by medicinal species are digestive disorders. These values are comparable to the results found by Meddour et al.  where digestive pathology is the most commonly treated disease. This similarity is explained by the fact that the population of the Tizi Ouzou region and that of the Guerbès-Sanhadja region share the same knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants. In fact, the two regions are geographically neighbours and both belong to the Kabyle and Numidian sectors according to the biogeographical subdivision proposed by Quézel and Santa  (Figure 3).
Species with very frequent uses
This work, which contributes to a better understanding of practical traditional care in the study area, has allowed us to list a number of chronic diseases treated by medicinal plants. The results obtained show that Munby Thyme (Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reut.) and Olive tree (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. europaea) are the most widely used with 47% and 38% respectively (Figure 4).
Note: 2%-Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Centaurea napifolia L., Daucus carota subsp. maritimus Spreng., Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., Scolymus hispanicus L., Stachys marrubifolia Viv., Stachys arvensis (L.) L., Genista ulicina Spach., Apium crassipes (Koch ex Rchb.) Rchb., Hypericum afrum Lam., Rosa sempervirens L.
Figure 4: Distribution of percentages of species used.
Infused or decocted dried leaves of Munby's Thyme (Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus Greuter) are most commonly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, pulmonary bronchitis and other infections . In addition, the Olive tree is among the oldest known cultivated trees in the world that has been an important source of nutrition and medicine . In addition, a large lot of species has a utilization percentage of between 1 and 2%, about 32 species, or 39.5% of the medicinal flora of the study area.
1%-Sambucus nigra L., Anagallis crassifolia Thore, Bellis prostrata Pomel, Callitriche obtusangula L. Gall., Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br., Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch, Cerastium glomeratum Thuill., Ceratophyllum submersum L., Cotula coronopifolia L., Cyperus fuscus L., Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin, Dorycnium rectum (L.) Ser., Euphorbia peplus L., Fuirena pubescens (Poir.) Kunth., Hypochoeris radicata L., Illecebrum verticillatum L., Linaria pinifolia (Poir.) Thell., Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC., Panicum repens L., Ranunculus flammula L., Ranunculus ophioglossifolius Vill., Rumex aristidis Coss., Scrophularia tenuipes Coss. & Durieu, Trifolium repens L.
The present work completes a first study conducted by our team where 81 spontaneous medicinal species were inventoried in the humid complex of Guerbès-Sanhadja. This also allowed us to list rare and endemic medicinal taxa. Some species are in danger of extinction because of their overexploitation (abusive uprooting). This is particularly the case with Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus Greuter and Stachys marrubifolia Viv. In fact, the uncontrolled harvest causes a decrease in the population of certain plants.
The ethnobotany survey revealed a plethora of results on the use of medicinal plants. Women and men have shared medicinal knowledge, with a slight advantage for women. The forms of use are also numerous, but with particular importance for herbal teas and gastroenteric applications. In addition, Munby Thyme (Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reut.) Is the most widely used plant, because of its interest in the treatment of digestive and urogenital diseases.
None of the co-authors of this manuscript have a conflict of interest.
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